The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that lie on either side of the spine in the lower middle of the back. Each kidney weighs about ¼ pound and contains approximately one million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is a miniature filtering or sieving device, while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.

Chronic kidney disease is when one suffers from gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function. This happens gradually over time, usually from months to years. Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages of increasing severity.

Stage 5 chronic kidney failure is also referred to as end-stage renal disease, wherein there is total or near-total loss of kidney function, and patients need dialysis or transplantation to stay alive. The term “renal” refers to the kidney, so another name for kidney failure is “renal failure.” Mild kidney disease is often called renal insufficiency.

Unlike chronic kidney disease, acute kidney failure develops rapidly, over days or weeks.

  • Acute kidney failure usually develops in response to a disorder that directly affects the kidney, its blood supply, or the urine flow from it.
  • Acute kidney failure usually does not cause permanent damage to the kidneys. With appropriate treatment of the underlying condition, it is often reversible, with complete recovery.
  • In some cases, though, it may progress to chronic kidney disease.

Diabetes is the cause of more than 50% of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and HTN causes 30% of CKD. Most patients with CKD die from heart disease. It is very important to control DM, HTN and lipids to prevent the progression of CKD, heart disease and ultimately death.